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AS CORES NA ARQUITETURA: PRETO

Assim como e oposta ao branco, o preto se comporta de maneiras diferentes nos nossos sistemas de cores: no sistema de cor luz (RGB – Red, Green e Blue) é a ausência de todas e no sistema de cor pigmento (CMYK – Ciano, Magenta, Amarelo e Preto) é a “mistura de todas”, mas neste caso, considerando apenas a mistura das cores que compõe o círculo cromático.

Está em nossa história desde o período paleolítico, essa é uma cor complexa e que ganhou significados diferentes para cada civilização. O homem primitivo utilizava o carvão puro nas pinturas rupestres, mas não demorou muito para descobrir pigmentos mais vívidos através da queima de ossos. No Antigo Egito era associada a fertilidade, porque era a cor do solo negro inundado pelo rio Nilo, para os antigos gregos era a cor do submundo, separado pelo rio Aqueronte, cuja água era negra, além disso, era usada nos emblemáticos vasos de cerâmica de figuras negras e de figuras vermelhas da arte grega. Na hierarquia de Roma estava presente nos trajes dos artesãos e também representava a morte, eleita como a cor do luto, cultura que se estende até a atualidade por diversos países.

Falando de Artes: Vasos de cerâmica - Arte Grega -6ºANO
Vasos cerâmicos de figuras pretas da arte grega
Robert Fulford: Feminists are failing to confront Islamic society's  treatment of women | National Post
Mulheres iemenitas vestidas com o nucab participam de uma manifestação em 4 de outubro de 2015 em frente às Nações Unidas (ONU) na capital iemenita, Sanaa, contra operações militares em andamento realizadas pela coalizão liderada pela Arábia Saudita. FOTO: AFP / MOHAMMED HUWAISMOHAMMED HUWAIS / AFP / GETTY IMAGES

A tinta preta foi inventada na China e Índia e se tornou muito importante na idade média devido a invenção dos meios de impressão, em meados do século XV, já que possui um excelente contraste com o branco do papel.

Com o avanço da tecnologia e do conhecimento humano, o preto evoluiu junto e se tornou cada vez mais presente em diversas áreas, principalmente na moda. Um grande exemplo foi em 1920, quando Coco Chanel introduziu o conceito do “pretinho básico”: um único vestido preto serve para as mais diversas ocasiões, dependendo somente da combinação de acessórios, mas o conceito se tornou mais popular na década de 60, após a fama do vestido preto criado por Givenchy para Audrey Hepburn no filme Bonequinha de Luxo.

Audrey Hepburn style file: Best dresses and outfits from the 1950s fashion  icon | London Evening Standard
Vestido preto criado por Givenchy para Audrey Hepburn no filme Bonequinha de Luxo
How to Master Audrey Hepburn's Style (and Still Look Completely Modern) |  Who What Wear
Look clássico de Audrey Hepburn, a calça cropped com sapatilha

É a cor preferida entre os jovens e entre os designers, é elegante, atemporal, clássica e moderna ao mesmo tempo. Na psicologia, transmite sofisticação, poder, formalidade, mas também está associada a morte, ao mal, ao mistério, ao sujo, ao azar. É claro que, tudo depende da forma que é utilizada, onde outros fatores externos e internos também ajudarão a construir essa atmosfera.

Quando se trata de arquitetura e decoração, precisamos lembrar das questões culturais e das intenções de quem projeta. Assim como o branco, o preto nunca saiu de moda nos projetos, aparecendo em praticamente todas as obras, seja nos aparelhos eletrônicos ou como parte da paleta escolhida. O estilo industrial esteve em alta nos últimos anos e ele trouxe muita personalidade para as estruturas metálicas, que agora se tornam cada vez mais aparentes e assumem a cor preta, trazendo modernidade e jovialidade aos ambientes.

A Leroteca – Projeto por Lacaja Arquitectos [Colômbia / 2013]
Fotografia: Rodrigo Dávila
Café MƯA – Projeto por 85 Design [Mỹ An – Vietnã / 2018]
Fotografia: To Huu Dung
Ampliação da Casa Ojito de Agua – Projeto por Lacaja Arquitectos [Colômbia / 2020]
Fotografia: Mateo Pérez
Adega Ayutthaya – Projeto por Bangkok Project Studio [Tailândia / 2017]
Fotografia: Spaceshift Studio

Combina com tudo e, mais do que qualquer outra cor, não é preciso ter medo de aplicar em diferentes lugares: no teto, na marcenaria, nas pedras das bancadas, em tecidos, nas tubulações, nos metais, nos tecidos. Não há erro quando se escolhe uma paleta de tons neutros.

No design de interiores funciona muito bem para ambientes comerciais e residenciais, tudo depende do propósito. Como qualquer outra cor, o preto também possui suas variações, quando menos saturado resulta em uma das cores mais usadas na arquitetura contemporânea: o cinza.

Casa CG – Projeto por Pedro Henrique [Arrifana – Portugal / 2010]
Fotografia: Ivo Tavares Studio
Apartamento Panorama – Projeto por 0E1 Arquitetos [Brasil / 2018]
Fotografia: Cristiano Bauce
Casa Ilhas – Projeto por Arquitetura Nacional [Rio Grande do Sul – Brasil / 2019]
Fotografia: Cristiano Bauce
Apartamento Rybalsky – Projeto por FILD design thinking company [Ucrânia / 2020]
Fotografia: Andrey Bezuglov
Apartamento Rybalsky – Projeto por FILD design thinking company [Ucrânia / 2020]
Fotografia: Andrey Bezuglov

Quando assume como cor principal do projeto é possível chegar em infinitos resultados, indo desde um estilo mais sofisticado, até algo mais despojado e alternativo. O preto é universal, consegue atingir e agradar mais pessoas do que qualquer outra cor. O preto está no smolking de um violinista de música clássica, assim como, na jaqueta de couro de rockeiro.

Showroom JOLOR – Projeto por Atelier tao+c [Xangai – China / 2019]
Fotografia: Zhi Xia
Biblioteca Deichman – Projeto por Atelier Oslo + Lund Hagem [Noruega / 2020]
Fotografia: Einar Aslaksen
Escritório 1901 – Projeto por Belotto Scopel Tanaka Arquitetura [Paraná – Brasil / 2020]
Fotografia: Eduardo Macarios
Casa Sarpanch – Projeto por Neogenesis+Studi0261 [Surate – Índia / 2020]
Fotografia: Ishita Sitwala | The Fishy Project

Quando se trata do lado exterior, nem sempre é a mais popular entre as escolhas. Dependendo da forma como é usada, a elegância tão almejada pode se transformar em seriedade e tristeza. Nesse sentido, é importante equilibrar com o paisagismo e se atentar na paisagem a volta.

Edifício Ashtree Road – Projeto por Graeme Nicholls Architects [Glasgow – Reino Unido / 2020] – Fotografia: Dapple Photography
Casa L7 – Projeto por K+A [Valle de Bravo – México / 2019]
Fotografia: Onnis Luque
Casa Ilhas – Projeto por Arquitetura Nacional [Rio Grande do Sul – Brasil / 2019]
Fotografia: Cristiano Bauce

Esse é o último post de uma série neste blog chamada: As Cores Na Arquitetura, onde além de informar, também é uma forma de nos expressarmos. Dizer a tod@s que somos uma empresa multicolorida, que acredita em todas as cores e em todas as formas de amor. Viva a diversidade!

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